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Filosofia


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Van Orman Quine

Epistemologia, Semantica e Ontologia

Sofia Ines Albornoz Stein

Uma das preocupa��es centrais de Quine � a de como alcan�amos as verdades da ci�ncia partindo das impress�es na superf�cie de nossos sentidos. Esta, � claro, � uma pergunta feita do ponto de vista empirista e faz parte do lado doutrinal da epistemologia, da investiga��o da verdade das teorias cient�ficas e das evid�ncias que fundamentam essa verdade. Quine utiliza-se da psicologia emp�rica como meio para alcan�ar uma vis�o ampla da passagem que ocorre entre o aprendizado de enunciados observacionais, por meio do significado por est�mulos, e a composi��o dos te�ricos. Analisando o comportamento humano durante a aprendizagem ling��stica, Quine progressivamente vislumbra as 'condi��es de possibilidade' desta. Todo o sistema filos�fico de Quine, com suas teses da inescrutabilidade da refer�ncia, da indetermina��o da tradu��o e da subdetermina��o de teorias cient�ficas, pode ser compreendido como uma tentativa de explicar o funcionamento interno da linguagem significativa, aceitando, simultaneamente, a circularidade inerente ao discurso filos�fico naturalizado. Este livro apresenta um panorama da vida e da obra de Willard Van Orman Quine, partindo da descri��o de sua inser��o no movimento empirista, como seguidor e como cr�tico de seus dogmas, e na filosofia anal�tica do s�culo XX, herdeira do logicismo. � focado no seu extensionalismo, que incita a regimenta��o parcial da linguagem, a cr�tica �s modalidades e que sustenta os holismos sem�ntico e epistemol�gico por ele mantidos.

One of Quine's main concerns is how we reach the truths of science starting from the impressions on the surface of our senses. This, of course, is a question made from an empiricist point of view and is part of the doctrinal side of epistemology. It is part of the inquiry about the truth of scientific theories, i.e., about the evidence that supports truth. Quine uses empirical psychology as a mean to achieve a broad view of the transition that occurs between the learning of observational sentences, through its stimulus meaning, and the composition of theoretical ones. Analyzing human behavior during linguistic learning, Quine gradually discerns the 'conditions of possibility' of it. The entire philosophical system of Quine, with his main theses of the inscrutability of reference, of the indeterminacy of translation and of under-determination of scientific theories, can be understood as an attempt to explain the inner operation of meaningful language, accepting, at the same time, the circularity inherent to the philosophical naturalized discourse. This book gives an overview of the life and works of Willard Van Orman Quine, starting from a description of his insertion in the empiricist movement, as follower and critic of his dogmas, and in the twentieth century's analytic philosophy, heiress of logicism. It emphasizes Quine's extensionalism, which prompts his partial regimentation of language, his criticism to modal logic and gives rise to the semantic and epistemological holism sustained by him.

15 October 2009

978-1-904987-60-4

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